This Post was originally published in 2014 but is frequently updated. Scroll down to read through a lengthy list of documented injuries and deaths from rapid extreme weight cuts. If you are aware of other incidents that should be added to this list feel free to contact me with details.
Following UFC 177, an event which had headliner Renan Barao yanked from his title bout following a difficult weight cut, UFC President Dana White was asked whether this is “a sign that the UFC can or should do anything to get involved in this process” referring to rapid extreme weight loss (“REWL”) practices which are the norm in MMA, to which White responded “Nobody’s ever been hurt from it, I mean, there’s only so much we can do“.
This reminds me of Senator Moynihan’s famous quote “Everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.”
The truth is athletes have been hurt as a result of rapid extreme weight cutting practices. A few examples include –
- Canadian fighter Jer Kornelsen requiring CPR following losing consciousness during a cut
- fighter Jordan Murray requiring gallbladder surgery due to weight cutting
- Rodrigo Damm being forced out of UFC Fight Night 29 due to Kidney Issues caused by a drastic weight cut
- Nova Uniao flyweight fighter Leandro “Feijao” Souza passed away while cutting weight
- UFC Fighter Brian Melancon retired due to reduced kidney function attributed to the demands of REWL practices
- Daniel Cormier’s kidney failure, brought on by excessive weight cutting
- T.J. Cook suffered kidney failure in the ring
- Yoon Young Kim reportedly suffered a mild heart attack while cutting
- Ulysses Gomez was hospitalized after collapsing while attempting to make weight
- Marcus Davis revealed that a “tortured” weight cut nearly killed him.
- Three college wrestler deaths in a 6 week period due to weight cutting
- (update September 8, 2014) – Charles Oliveira reporting “high fever, headaches and vomiting” during failed cut
- (update October 5, 2014) In order to make weight for the Battlegrounds tournament, Cody McKenzie resorted to drawing blood in order to shed his final 1.4 pounds.
- (update November 15, 2014) Although not MMA, amateur Kickboxer Dennis Munson Jr. died after his first kickboxing bout which included a same day weigh in where the fighter reportedly had difficulties with the cut down to 135.
- (update January 30, 2015) Kevin Gastelum reportedly was hospitalized while cutting weight before UFC 183.
- (update February 9, 2015) That time when UFC asked Paul Redmond to cut 36 pounds in 13 days. While he was not reportedly injured this story takes away any shred of deniability that the UFC has knowledge of the dangerous cuts their fighters attempt to make.
- (update February 13, 2015) Nick Lentz was pulled from UFC Fight Night 60 after experiencing “flu like symptoms” on weigh in day
- (update February 21, 2015) T.J. Waldburger faints during weight cut for UFC Fight Night 61 and is forced to withdraw from the bout. While commenting on this development MMA official record keeper Kirik Jenness provided the following sobering story: “I have reffed, judged, cornered, and occasionally fought in hundreds of MMA contests; the worst injury I ever saw was not from a strike, slam, or submission. I was the ref.I taped his hands, because he was cornered by his brother, and neither knew how to wrap. I spoke with him some, to settle his nerves, and learned he was a first-time fighter, and a little older, with a background in traditional martial arts.In the second round something wasn’t right, so I stopped it. There wasn’t much protest. Then he passed out in the locker room. Then his heart stopped in the ambulance. He was airlifted to Boston, where he was diagnosed with renal failure.Day after day, I sought word on his condition; eventually his kidneys started on their own, so he didn’t need to be on dialysis for the rest of his life.The cause was a combination of the Atkins diet, then water weight cutting, and then heavy exertion under TV lights.“
- (update April 9, 2015) Ronny Markes is forced to withdraw from WSOF 20 due to ‘dehydration’
- (update April 27, 2015) MixedMartialArts.com reports that a fighter in Washington State collapsed post bout with kidney failure and died shortly after and question whether rapid weight cut practices may have played a role. From early media reports it is unclear whether weight cut practices played any role.
- (update May 5, 2015) Invicta’s Veronica Rothenhausler announcement retirement after prolonged post concussive issues which she in part relates to rapid extreme weight cut practices.
- (update May 13, 2015) Steve Montgomery is the latest addition to this list who suffered from a seizure requiring hospitalization while cutting weight for episode 4 of TUF 21.
- (update June 12, 2015) Andrew Todhunter was pulled from his UFC Debut after passing out while cutting weight. Reportedly boxing at 200 pounds one month prior to making a cut to 170 for UFC 188.
- (Update August 2015) Fighter Dex Montenegro reportedly suffered a collapsed lung as a consequence of an extreme cut.
- (update September 18, 2015) it is reported that BC fighter Ash Mashreghi had his “body shut down” and leading to convulsions and needed hospitalization during a rapid extreme weight cut.
- (update September 29, 2015) Grant Dawson had to pull out from his RFA debut after suffering from “burns and an infection” while using a hot tub for prolonged periods to cut weight.
- (update October 2, 2015) Johny Hendricks had to cancel his bout with Tyron Woodly at UFC 192 after having “weight cut issues” according to Dana White. The “issues” required hospitalization.
- (Update October 14, 2015) Zoila Frausto required hospitalization after her title loss at RFA 31 due to fighting after a ‘botched weight cut‘
- (update November 19, 2015) Benny Madrid was withdrew from WSOF 25’s lightweight tournament after he “was transported to the hospital due to issues with his weight cut“.
- (update November 24, 2015) Nicaraguan boxer David “Terry” Acevedo died after suffering an eight round KO. Dehydration appears to possibly have played a role with his family noting that he”lost 10 pounds in less than 24 hours to make weight“
- (update December 11, 2015) ONE Championship fighter Yang Jian Bing died from complications secondary to a rapid extreme weight cut for a bout scheduled in the Phillipines.
- Update February 20, 2106 – Dhafi Harris (Dada5000) suffered severe dehydration and renal failure after his Bellator 149 loss to Kimbo Slice. Harris reportedly shed 40 pounds to make weight for the contest.
- Update July 8, 2016 – Ross Pearson admitted to kidney and digestive issues attributed to weight cutting
- Update July 28, 2016 – Michelle Waterson reported that after one of her weight cuts to 105 lbs it took Athletic Commission physicians an hour to find her pulse in her weakened state.
- Update November 4, 2016 – Paul Daley was pulled from Bellator 163 after “a difficult weight cut”.
- Update December 9, 2016 – Anthony Pettis had to abandon his weight cut for an interim title bout scheduled at UFC 206 reporting that his body “gave out”, felt light headed, began to gag, had difficulty controlling his breathing and developed acid reflux.
- Update January 24, 2017 – Rafael dos Anjos, in an interview to ESPN, has detailed a terrifying weight cut experience prior to his title loss to Eddie Alvarez noting as follows “Everything was on plan. We had three pounds to lose the morning of the weigh-in. The night before, we had lost eight or nine pounds during training. I jumped in the [Epsom salt] bath for 15 minutes and when I stood up I felt dizzy. I sat down again on the edge of the bath and felt OK, started to stand up again, and I just fell backwards. My head was two inches from the faucet. I could have died that day.My coaches took me out of the bath and placed me on the bed, I came back for a couple seconds and passed out again. I came back, and passed out a third time. I was almost out for three minutes, they said. At one point, they said, ‘Let’s call 911 and cancel the fight.’ I woke up and asked them what was going on. And after all that, I still didn’t know if I had made the weight. So, I had to check my weight but I couldn’t stand up. I lied down with a cold towel on my head. It took me about 40 minutes to get up. I checked my weight and it said 155. If I hadn’t been on weight, there’s no way I could do anymore. I couldn’t do it. On the walk to the weigh-ins, I was just feeling miserable.”
- Update February 16, 2017 – Johny Hendricks said that ““My kidneys shut down for five days after my fight (with Magny),”
- Update February 21, 2017 – Ian McCall’s body “failed” forcing him to be removed from UFC 208 following a rapid extreme weight cut
- Update – Bec Rawlings states she was diagnosed with secondary hypothyroidism due to the effects of “nasty weight cuts“.
- Update – Justin Willis was pulled from UFC 208 after his “body shut down” during a rapid extreme weight cut.
- Update March 3, 2017 – Today Khabib Nurmagomedov was pulled from UFC 209 after being hospitalized from a rapid extreme weight cut. In a subsequent interview Khabib went on to note that he “almost died” from the weight cut. Despite the severity the UFC criticized Khabib for going to hospital instead of calling their in house doctor.
- Update March 27, 2017 – Scotland’s Jordan Donald died of heat stroke while cutting weight in Thailand (not for an MMA bout but for a Muay Thai bout).
- Update May 5, 2017 – Tony Davis suffered kidney failure while cutting weight with the promoter of the WFC noting ” “During his weight cut Tony started having some issues and was admitted to the hospital and was diagnosed with kidney failure, please put him in your prayers, were all pulling for you Tony!”
- Update May 8, 2017 – Valerie Letourneau required hospitalization prior to her strawweight UFC title fight due to the effects of her weight cut. Despite this the fight proceeded. She noted “They had to take me to the hospital right after weigh-ins. I couldn’t even drink, eat, or speak. And I don’t know if you remember, but we did an interview as soon as we walked off the stage and I couldn’t stop shaking. I couldn’t stop shaking, and I couldn’t even walk. I just made it to my chair and after that, I couldn’t move, I was so cold, so cold inside. I felt like all my bones were knocking on each other and they had to give me an I.V., I was going to die.“
- Update May 29, 2017 – Anthony Pettis revealed that he “couldn’t even walk downstairs to get on the scale.” during his weight cut for UFC 206 and that this occurred right in front of the UFC’s own doctor noting the “UFC doc was up there watching me“.
- Update July 7, 2017 – Craig Booth was hospitalized in critical condition from consequence of a rapid extreme weight cut.
- Booth apparently suffered long term harm from this incident with a GoFundMe update noting that “sustained serious brain damage and multiple organ dysfunction on the 7/7/17. While his organs have recovered, he has been left with extensive brain injuries and to date, has been retraining himself to move his limbs, balance, make any noises, breathe properly and eat to name a few. It has been a very hard long 18 months for Craig and his family. “
- (Update August 15, 2017) It is reported that amateur MMA fighter Rondel Clark died following an event held at Plymouth Memorial Hall in Plymouth, Massachusetts on Saturday, August 12, 2017. This death has been attributed to his rapid extreme weight cut.
- Update September 6, 2017 – UFC Fighter Paige Van Zant admits “My last two or three fights I passed out in my bathroom. In my last fight, I passed out and I had the doctors almost not clear me for the fight“
- Update September 21, 2017 – Mizuto Hirota was pulled from UFC Fight Night Japan after showing profound signs of dehydration.
- Update October 6, 2017 – Today Nik Lentz was pulled from UFC 216 due to “weight cutting issues”.
- Update October 9, 2017 – this week Pancrase allowed Daniel Lima to compete despite being dragged onto the scales to make weight in what can only be described as exhibiting near fatal signs of dehydration.
- Update October 9, 2017 – This week Kevin Lee was allowed to compete at UFC 216 despite having a visible staph infection and admitting to a weight cut that “damn near killed me”.
- Update October 21, 2017 – This week the UFC thought it would be a good idea to give Sam Alvey a short notice bout where he unsuccessfully attempted to cut 40 pounds on 10 days notice.
- Update November 6, 2017 – It is reported that this weekend a fighter ‘died’ in the cage at LFA 26. Clovis Handcock had a hard weight cut and collapsed during his bout. He suffered kidney failure and apparently had to be medically resuccitated in the cage following which he was transported to hospital where he was rehydrated to a healthy weight of 206 pounds compared to the 170 pounds he weighed in at.
- Update November 16, 2017 – Lucas Martins was pulled from his bout at Brave 9 after experiencing health issues during a rapid extreme weight cut with the fighter noting “my body was no longer responding. I was out of breath, feeling pain all over my body, and I also felt dizzy. Those were some of the reasons that made me and my team decide to stop the weight cut because I could no longer see anything in front of me“.
- Update November 20, 2017 – Last week an 18 year old woman died in Australia while cutting weight for a Muay Thai fight. It’s believed that she collapsed due to severe dehydration which ultimately claimed her life.
- Update November 30, 2017 – Today Sijara Eubanks was hospitalized during her attempted weight cut for the inaugural UFC women’s flyweight title bout. In an instagram post Eubanks admitted that she suffered kidney failure as a result of the cut.
- Update December 9, 2017 – Joanna Jedrzejczyk noted that she was lucky to be alive following her last weight cut.
- Update December 15, 2017 – Pietro Menga was pulled from UFC on Fox 26 after reportedly suffering kidney failure during a rapid extreme weight cut
- Update January 13, 2018 – Uriah Hall was pulled from UFC Fight Night 124. He suffered a mini-seizure and slight heart attack while undergoing a rapid extreme weight cut for the bout. In a subsequent interview Hall detailed his ordeal noting “I was walking to the elevator and boom, just like that, I collapsed…I was in the elevator holding on to my best friend — apparently I bit him, to hold on to him. I passed out again. Woke up and there were EMTs, a guy was trying to get a needle in me, and I remember swinging. I wasn’t in control of my body…I woke up in the hospital and was screaming for water. ‘Give me water! Give me water!’ They said, ‘We can’t give you water yet,’ for whatever reason. I grabbed my sister and said, ‘Tell them to please give me a sip of water.’ I never felt so thirsty in my life. They finally gave me a sip, and I passed out.“
- Update January 13, 2018 – Zak Cummings was also pulled from UFC Fight Night 124 after he “slipped while moving from the tub to the ground and cracked my fucking skull on a handrail”.
- Update February 1, 2018 – John Dodson admitted to having kidney failure two times while cutting to flyweight.
- Update February 21, 2018 – This week the UFC announced that Gilbert Burns was being pulled from UFC Fight Night Orlando because “Upon his arrival, the UFC medical team determined that it would be unsafe for Burns to cut additional weight necessary to meet the 156-pound limit” Further update – Burns, apparently did not have any injury related to cutting however he showed up 31 pounds over his contracted weight and was pulled to prevent the attempted drastic cut in the first place.
- Update March 12, 2018 – This week UFC Fighter Anthony Smith admitted that his rapid extreme weight cuts resulted in a host of concerning symptoms including blurred vision, an inability to focus, organ pain, being unable to stand unassisted, hearing loss and confusion.
- Update March 14, 2018 – UFC middleweight Jack Marshman was pulled from UFC Fight Night 127 where he was attempting a cut to welterweight. He was pulled “due to precautionary reasons over his weight cut”.
- Update March 30, 2018 – Brazilian fighter Alexandre Silva reportedly remains in a coma 2 months after collapsing during a rapid extreme weight cut. He suffered multiple seizures, rhabdomyolysis, internal bleeding and a blood clot to the brain. (Further update – Silva remained in a coma for 200 days and is reportedly on the road to recovery.)
- Update April 24, 2018 – Siyar Bahadurzada “passed out in the sauna cutting weight” for UFC Fight Night 128
- Update May 16, 2018 – Mackenzie Dern attempted to cut 16.8% of her body weight after showing up on fight week for UFC 224 at 139.5 pounds for a bout at 115 lbs. Dern admitted to the following during the attempted and ultimately abandoned cut “I felt my body not reacting well. The other times I didn’t make weight it was in my head. I started to trip out a little — well, not a little, a lot — that my body was shutting down….For this one, I felt like my mind was right, but I remember telling my coaches, ‘It’s hard for me to stand up’, I started to feel it in my legs. Then I went to the sauna two more times and then I wasn’t able to stand up anymore. The water came out of my legs and the muscles in my legs were starting to not respond. They thought I wouldn’t be able to fight.”
- Update May 31, 2018 – Darren Till ‘lost vision’ while attempting his unsuccessful weight cut for UFC Liverpool..
- Update June 4, 2018 – Bec Rawlings admitted that she suffered a thyroid disorder from years of weight cuts to 115 pounds.
- Update June 8, 2018 – Today Yoel Romero failed to make weight for UFC 225 and afterwards Ariel Helwani observed that “Romero just walked by us, being held up by two people, wincing in pain as they walked into the elevator. Very hard to see. He seemed to be in a lot of pain“. Marc Raimondi also observed this noting “Yoel Romero just walked by us, assisted by two members of his team on each side. He was visibly and audibly in pain. Scary stuff.“
- Update June 16, 2018 – A case study was published recently in the Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism linking rapid weight cutting as a possible culprit in the death of a mixed martial artist.
- Update June 18, 2018 – Craig White admitted to losing 46 pounds in 2 weeks for a short notice fight against Neil Magny at UFC Liverpool. White lost via first round TKO. White admitted to a litany of problems including having his body “absolutely ruined ” and “struggling to walk around” for hours after the weigh in.
- Update July 7, 2018 – This weekend Boxer Danny O’Connor was pulled from a title bout when was hospitalized due to severe dehydration from a rapid extreme weight cut with possible kidney failure.
- Update August 9, 2018 – Following UFC 227 the California State Athletic Commission published day of fight weights which revealed that the vast majority of fighters dehydrated by more than 10% of their bodyweight, a metric the ABC recently labelled as ‘cheating’ in their recent boxing reforms which are intended to eventually spill over into MMA regulation.
- Update September 7, 2018 – Today it was announced that Nicco Montano was removed from UFC 228 where she was scheduled for her first title defence after she was hospitalized for issues which arose coinciding with her weight cut. In a first hand update via social media Montano noted “Just keeping an eye on how my kidneys are feeling hour by hour….Docs said if I had waited any longer I could’ve potentially gone into cardiac arrest because my electrolyte imbalance was so extreme“
- Update November 16, 2018 – Today Cynthia Calvillo weighed in and and missed weight for UFC Argentina while appearing to struggle to simply stay balanced while standing.
- Update December 14, 2018 – Today Jessica-Rose Clark was pulled from her scheduled bout at UFC on Fox 31 after being deemed ‘medically unfit’ at weigh-ins.
- Update December 30, 2018 – Rena Kubota collapsed and was hospitalized while attempting to make weight for Rizin 14. She was ultimately pulled from the card.
In a subsequent interview Gall admitted to suffering kidney failure and at hospital he was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis
Update August 10, 2019 – Aspen Ladd, after looking ill at weigh ins and then regaining 17% of her body mass on fight day, was suspended by the California State Athletic Commission from competing at bantamweight pending documentation from physicians.
Update August 28, 2019 – 6 fighters who competed at UFC 241 were told by the California State Athletic Commission that they need to move up in weight class after gaining more than 15% of their body weight back from the time of weigh ins to competition.
Update September 6, 2019 – The UFC’s Zak Cummings admitted that he feared for his life during his weight cuts to welterweight before choosing to move up a weight class.
Update September 10, 2019 – In a study recently published in the Journal of Hypertension titled “Acute Effects of Weight Loss by Dehydration on Renal Function in Mixed Martial Arts“, the authors followed an MMA athlete who underwent rapid extreme weight cut practices in MMA. The authors noted the following potential kidney issues “it was observed that the athlete presented some abnormalities during the body weight loss / gain cycle as glycosuria, non-reversible positive leukocyturia and proteinuria within 24 hours, elevated serum creatinine (1.3 mg / dL) and urea (42 mg / dL) during the peak of dehydration (day of weighing and fighting). Blood ureic nitrogen / creatinine ratio (15.8) and creatinine clearance (126.1 mL / min) were elevated during the three moments of observation, namely 30 days pre-fight, day of weighing and fighting. Elevated creatinine clearance suggests renal damage with increased filtration rate with possible renal damage from dehydration.”
Update September 10, 2019 – In a study recently published in the Journal of Sports Sciences for Health titled Weight Loss Behaviours in Brazilian Mixed Martial Arts Athletes the authors interviewed 179 pro MMA fighters and the data revealed that “Brazilian professional MMA athletes commonly undergo weight loss procedures through harmful and illegal methods regardless of sex, weight class, although international level athletes demonstrated weight management behavior that was found to be even more aggressive.”
Update October 17, 2019 – this week Sean Woodson noted that he underwent a 24-pound weight cut that he had to complete in just 4 days in order to take a short notice fight on Dana White’s Contender Series. The weight cut left him compromised with Woodson noting ““It was the hardest thing that I’d ever done in my life. I don’t ever want to do that again…Making that drastic of a cut on such short notice, I knew that my cardio took a big hit from that.”
Update November 7, 2019 – Today ESPN reports that Rudson Caliocane suffered a brain stem ischemia last month following a fight in Brazil and as a result has left sided paralysis. According to the article “Caliocane’s neurologist informed him that the ischemia was a result of an extreme weight cut, not the actual fight, which Caliocane lost to Matheus Mendonca by unanimous decision. Davis said Caliocane cut more than 15 pounds in a single day to make weight for the bout, likely via severe dehydration.”
Update November 14, 2019 – Hailey Cowan had to withdraw from her co-main event for LFA 78 after being hospitalized during her weight cut. In an instragram post Cowan noted she will move up in weight class as a result of this.
Update February 7, 2020 – This week UFC fighter Antonio Arroyo was rushed to hospital and pulled from UFC 247 after being found on the floor in obvious pain after weigh ins for the bout.
Despite White’s quote, in reality the UFC is well aware that harm does come from REWL practices. For proof you simply need to fast forward a mere twenty minutes in time from the post event press conference to the subsequent media scrum. Here White acknowledges the harm suffered by Barao noting as follows “When they come in we weigh all of them so we have a good idea where everybody is and know where they are. What happened this time, and don’t quote me on this…is he got to (138 pounds) and that was it, his body shut down and wasn’t cutting any more weight…He was 138 when he feinted and it wasn’t even a feint, what happened is once you deplete all the electrolytes in your body you basically become paralyzed. That’s what happens. You become paralyzed and you can’t move any of your limbs. They had to come and call 911.”
White goes on to suggest that athletes alone have the responsibility to make weight. While it is true that professional athletes do bear responsibility for their actions promoters cannot turn a blind eye to dangerous practices that take place under their nose. The UFC knows exactly how much their fighters weigh when they arrive at their fight location the week prior to a bout. In turn this means the UFC knows exactly how much weight their athletes are going to attempt to lose and as illustrated by the above examples these cuts are not always made safely.
Just as the NCAA fashioned safety measures following deaths from REWL practices in the 1990’s, promotions such as the UFC along with State and Provincial Athletic Commissions can fashion minimum safety measures to prevent further tragedies from occurring in MMA. At a minimum, adding hydration metrics when athletes make weight can go a long way in addressing dangerous cuts. Whatever the solution, ignoring the problem and saying “nobody’s ever been hurt from it” is not the answer.