After wining gold in the 2016 International Brazilian Jiu Jistsu Federation (IBJJF) world championships, which took place in California, Paulo Miyao was tested by USADA. His sample tested positive for Clomiphene, a prohibited substance.
Miyao argued that he should not be subject to any discipline as he speaks little English and USADA should not have jurisdiction in these circumstances. In short the argument was that USADA only had jurisdiction by agreement and since Miyao did not understand the documents he signed consenting to USADA testing there was no agreement. An independent arbitrator dismissed this defence and in doing so provided the following reasons:
USADA handed Miyao a 2 year suspension.